Malicious Software is shortly named as Malware, which comprises of adware / spyware programs that are used to examine every surfing practice. In many forms, malware causes biggest hazard for the internet users. Malware has poor script and hence it has the ability to hijack user’s web browsers, pass out the information, and monitor the computer.
I. Malware Types
Some of the malware types are discusses below.
1. Viruses: This kind od malware is well known to every system user’s. This is one type of program that infects the computer by copying itself. Fortunately, virus gets into other computer very quickly in some form of executable codes, infecting files on a network. Some viruses put on view of the presence indications, whereas, many do not.
2. Worms: Warms are the self-replication program that sends copies of itself to other lump through a network, and it might be done without the user’s knowledge. This happens because of the non-security on a computer. In general, worms always produce a few harms to the network and it cannot be halted at any cost.
3. Wabbits: Wabbit is the one that reproduce computer program repeatedly by itself. It does not contaminate the bulk programs or files. It also does not use any network resources of the system and hence avoids the spreading of infections. Additonally, wabbits can be programmed with a plan of having hateful side effects. A best example of wabbit is Fork bomb which attacks a computer by running a process that creates another running process.
4. Trojan: Trojan horse is deceiving program. This is a one which acts as a veiled program projected to relieve the viruses that affects the system, whereas, truly it infects the system with various aspects. Though Virus and Trojan horse are used often equally, they have a quite change in their behavior. In order to protect the system from Trojan horse, installation of firewall helps out in the case if it absence.
5. Spyware: Spyware is one of the malware types (a hidden type) which can be installed on any computers and acquires few amount of information of user’s without their knowledge. The acquired information can be of personal stuffs, surfing practices and visited sites of the users. Additional controls like installing softwares and website transmission activities are also possible. Detection of this type of malware is really a difficult task as it is hidden. Spywares can be installed by the shared owner, in order to secretly observe the users action on the system. This monitoring feature of spyware is simply easy and well extended through out the corporate.
6. Backdoors: Many backdoors can be installed so as to make the access easier for the future use. In a login system, a backdoor considers the combination of user and password that enables to access the system at any instance. A successful solution is reached by many programmers in installing huge amount of installation of such backdoor software’s.
7. Keyloggers: Keylogger is a program that monitors each and every hitting of keys and directs the acquired information to the corresponding spying person. This is a fair method for a third party to view those acquired information can be of username, private passphrases, financial records, emails, bank account numbers, secured &unsecured measures, credit card number, passwords, and so on.
Keyloggers are used for many justifiable intentions to troubleshoot networks, associates efficiency; etc.A keylogger can be of both software program/application or hardware device. The system keyboard port is the most common used hardware keylogger. The appearance of such port can be of small cylindrical or extended tail in shape, which cannot be perceived by any software. The cost of different models depends on the number of keystrokes. The models with highest capacity are being more expensive in the market.
8. Adware: Adware, otherwise known as advertising-supported software, is a software package that participates automatically without any assistance, or downloads ads to the system. Those ads are displayed in the form of pop-up. Mostly, adwares are undisruptive, whereas, some are incorporated with keyloggers and other persistent software.
II. Identifying Malware
- Malware can be injected through ads that are posted in the website. Make a note of those using some respective software. Proceed with a fine investigate Check with the ads that are displayed in the website.
- Make a note of all user-posting area of the site
- Look out for unusual display of many popup, system tray icon and unexpected applications without the user authorization.
- Low speed of system
- Change in browser configuration, desktop settings & preference without user’s knowledge.
- Bring Task manager into play as it acts as one part in identifying the malware. An obvious malware issues can be easily detected through task manager. In Task Manager Window, examine the Image name that comes under Processes tab.
- Use some applications which help to find out the malware such as,
- Windows Defender (Microsoft)
- Ad-Aware (Lavasoft)
- Spy Sweeper (Webroot)
- Spybot Search & Destroy (Safer Networking)
- Hidden encodes or encrypts are the general way to hide the malware in the system. Hence, check out for the abnormal codes.
- Codes using hex or Unicode characters are the encoded codes
- Encrypted codes do not have any fixed patterns. Huge amount of codes look like an incoherent codes and such codes are to be verified.
- Increase in the amount of spam
- Unable to access antivirus program to get rid of malware
III. Methods to remove malware
Removal of malware depends on the type of malware on which our system is affected.
- Run a scan with the existing anti-malware program. Be cautious with the malware program. Many of those would not remove the malware at times.
- Make use of Malwarebytes’ Anti-malware, an on-demand scanning tool in which there is no conflict with an existing Antivirus.
On a successful identification of the infection, the detected malware could be diffused manually by deleting the polluted .exes, cracking down the registry, eradicating the contaminated files and other scanned results.
Malwareremovalbot is a best known site, enabling to download a malware removal program. This serves as a fast and well-organized mode. One time installation of this software guards the system on searching and diffusing the malwares at any spot.
- In the Task Manager Window, click on Processes tab and it shows a list of running processes. Make a search of malware processes from the list and terminate malware processes. Also, end the non-malware files that are integrated and utilized by malware.
IV. Tools for finding the malware
1. PhishTank: PhistTank is a site which allows the users to put on view of the issues so as to verify and share. OpenDNS organization operates this tool
2. URL Scanner: URL scanner creates an obstacle for HTTP requests which is processed by Internet Information Services. This restriction leads UrlScan tool to prevent any harmful demands approaching the server.
Additional Features in UrlScan:
There are some new features introduced in UrlScan 2.5.
- Log file directory modification
- Logging long URLs
- Restriction in request size
AVG Online Web Page Scanner: Safety and security of each and every web page can be examined using AVG Online Web Page Scanner. This acts as a part of LineScanner. When the user receives a mistrustful link through e-mail, it can be easily studied by LinkScanner.
3. Google Safe Browsing: This is a versatile tool. It helps the user to test a website and find out whether those websites are legitimate or a malware reflected. To do the same, type http://www.google.com/safebrowsing/diagnostic?site=<User Target Website Address in the browser address bar.
V. Result of malware affected website
The computer in unstable state is the obvious warning sign of a malware. The spontaneous rebooting, crashes within the system, decrease in system accessing speed are the symptoms of a malware infection.
The most terrible action of a malware is that some malware are designed and projected to trace out and creates the text log (i.e. any keys that is pressed on keyboard) and those are sent to hacker periodically. This kind of a performance enables the hacker to acquire the secured details like password and permits access for email, bank account and other protected information.
VI. Web hosting and Malware
In today’s world, website security is the most important factor to save the users and content from hacker and spammers. Many web hosting companies has the primary responsibility to safeguard the hosted website from malware. Addition to this, malware nature, type, effects, cause, removal & prevention procedures will also be provided by web hosting companies. There are many existing malware protecting guideline offered by web hosting companies, and still some more are expected for the future usage.
No one can assure that the sites used by them are 100% safe and unaffected by malware. Hence, some hosting companies have malware and trojan scanners and it helps out to scan for removing malware only upto a certain limit. Since most of the malware are iframes, these scanners fail to remove them. Though, many hosting companies are providing great support. Few web hosting are best and secured. Hence, recommended web hosting are HostGator and Inmotion. In this kind of a hosting service, a special page is allotted to post the users complaints on malware
Malware problems are solved by Hosting providers deal with this problem in diverse approaches; Malware is not regarded as crisis by some hosting providers, whereas, others are very cautious in solving the same.
On considering the saying of StopBadware, web hosting providers should be aware of the infection created by malware within one working day. On the other hand, make a possibility of acquiring the control on spiteful URL so as to find out and the duration that helps to cut down the infection at the least of two working days’ time. Any hosting providers should be able to provide the notice and guidelines to the owner of the site to solve the problems and this is highly recommended. Continuous testing, imperative communication, blocking the polluted content, abolishing malware and correcting the basic weakness of shared website are the responsibilities of the entire hosting providers. More quick and effective communication of the providers ensures the fine result of malware demolishing.
VII. Malware hosted websites
1. Redirected sites: On creating a well designed malware by cyber-criminal and hosting in few groups of websites, slowly some more websites get redirected to this malware hosted site. Hence, a junction of malware is met with the gathered sites
2. Proxy websites: Proxy websites hides the malware for a long duration of time
3. Antivirus Sotware: Malware websites could be packed differently by cyber-criminal and it sneaks out the antivirus program installed on user’s computer
VIII. Common source of malware
Possibility of malware infection is very high and frequent for any computer connected to internet. Many viruses exist in various applications. The source of malware is various and some are listed below:
1. Downloaded programs
Lots of programs are required for many applications and hence, users prefer to download those at any time from internet. Discounts or free cost boost up the users to use the programs that affected by malware
2. Handy devices
Handy/portable devices like pen drives, compact discs and removable hard discs are used by many people. These devices enable to spread the malware from one computer to another. Any kind of malware could be injected to the devices while used in many systems and possibility of spreading virus gets increased.
3. Internet Games
Installing games is one of the most important source that allows malware to enter into system. Many free wares are offered for the people and this leads to download virus affected games.
4. Usage of PDF
36% of malicious code is circulated by the utilization of PDF. This acts as the leading source for virus contamination. When a PDF document is loaded, it begins to generate a Java code and it takes an advantage of widening malicious executables to other computers.
Most of the PC uses Adobe Reader that makes PDF to come into action and accounted for malware to the system.
One of the most admired social media is Facebook, pursued by Twitter, YouTube, and LinkedIn. This is the top crisis which experienced a huge malware effect. Hence, to diminish the risk respective to social media, SMB (Server Message Block) has a governance policy of 57%.
IX. To prevent malware
1. Make an awareness of the computer status at all instance. Check for abnormal activities that occur in the system.
2. Assure with the browser settings which could let the user know about the entry of all the programs that attempts to get downloaded.
3. To end the downloading and installation of malware to the system, install a highly regarded and trustworthy anti-virus program. Maintain the installed program updated everyday so as to clear the difficulties in the future.
4. Some websites are well practiced in pasting the cookies into the computer which enabling the tracking task later. Hence, disable the cookies from the browser.
5. Few innocent programs or software holds out malware with it and it could install the same to the system. So, avoid downloading software and programs from any anonymous websites for a safer side.
6. A particular network instrument or analyzer should be decided on the user’s comfort so as to monitor the network traffic and the action of malware.
7. An experienced based techniques which is known as Heuristic must be permitted in the existing antivirus software. It helps to make a notification initial malware behavior
8. A policy setting such as local security or group security is required to be implemented and also disable or create a limitation on Window Script Host (WSH) and ActiveX.
9. An efficient and strongest Antivirus like AVG helps to overcome with the difficulties of malware which also updates everyday
10. Change the password of Ftp/cPanel on a regular basis with a complicated combinations
11. Make use of Opera or Mozilla FireFox as it offers a safer browsing experience
12. Update the Operating System frequently. Give a high preference for Microsoft which always provide a best improvements to the system and the latest security patches
13. Utilize the newer solution like McAfee Site Advisor as it makes browsing safe
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